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Glossary

The English version of our glossary is currently under construction and will be regularly updated.

A

Advection

Advection describes the transport of a medium (e.g. sea ice) and its properties (e.g. sea-ice thickness).

Anisotropy

Directional dependence of a substance’s property

Arctic

polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth

Azimuth

Horizontal direction in a three-dimensional coordinate system

C

Computer tomography (CT)

Computer tomography (CT) can be used to create three-dimensional representations of an object’s internal and external structure, allowing details to be recognised on a micrometre scale.

Coriolis force

Fictitious force in rotating systems that deflects a particle’s motion perpendicular to its initial direction of motion. Does not affect motion in the direction of the rotational axis.

D

Dissipation

Transformation of one form of energy into another.

E

Eutectic system

A substance in phase equilibrium

H

Halocline

Transitional zone between water layers with different salinities

I

Inconsistencies

Discrepancies between two conditions, where both are considered valid but contradict one another.

L

Lagrangian approach

In a Lagrangian model, the simulated parameters follow the large-scale motion.

Laser altimetry

“Altimeter missions” are used to measure the elevation of the Earth’s surface, and therefore also the elevation of the sea-ice surface.

R

Reanalyses

Reanalyses are created by combining extensive Earth observations with an atmospheric or ocean model through what is known as data assimilation.

Rheology

Rheology refers to the flow behaviour and deformation of matter.

T

Thermocline

Transitional water layer characterised by rapid temperature changes.