Jump to content Jump to footer
Install App

Install this app on your device for a better experience.


The English version of our glossary is currently under construction and will be regularly updated.


The Earth’s crust and the topmost part of its mantle. The lithosphere forms our planet’s outermost shell and consists of individual plates that are in motion.

A part of the climate system that encompasses the topmost layer of the Earth’s crust, both on continents and below the ocean, together with all crustal rock and the cold, chiefly elastic part of the topmost mantle. Volcanic activity is not considered to be part of the climate system, although it is part of the lithosphere; rather, it is viewed as an external force.