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The Arctic sea ice is currently below the levels seen in 2022 but clearly above the record minimum from 2012. Every September, the Arctic sea-ice extent reaches its annual minimum. On 7 September the
This year, the minimum Arctic sea-ice extent, at 4.33 million km², was most probably reached on 15 September (Figure 1), putting it at 7 th place in the sequence of minima since 1979. The sea ice had
The annual development of the sea-ice extent is one of the most important parameters for describing the seasonal progression of sea-ice development. It is particularly relevant when combined and compa
Research aircraft from the Alfred Wegener Institute have been surveying the ice-covered Arctic Ocean for 30 years. The immense effort of the past 52 expeditions has paid off: 40,000 km of measurement
This year, sea-ice development in the Antarctic is progressing extremely slowly and, after May, once again reached a record-low monthly sea-ice extent in June. At 11.23 million km², the monthly mean s
Relevance of melt ponds In the Arctic summer, the sea ice melts due to rising temperatures and constant sunlight. When it does, meltwater can gather in pools on the surface, known as melt ponds. These
Sea ice cores from the MOSAiC expedition (2019-2020) are one of the treasures that were brought back to Bremerhaven at the end of the year-long Arctic drift in October 2020. Now, a group of scientists
The further sea-ice retreat will chiefly depend on the ocean temperatures and on wind patterns, which can either condense or disperse the sea ice. As the summer draws to a close, the surface of the ce
Not until the end of the month did the sea-ice extent substantially decline, dropping below two standard deviations from the average for the period 1981 – 2010. At the same time, the summer solstice w
Within a matter of days, the extent decreased by ca. 490,000 km² (an area roughly the size of Spain) and briefly dipped below the record low from 2012 and near last year’s level. However, from 8 July
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