Albedo is used to measure the reflectivity of diffusely reflecting (but not mirrored) surfaces, expressed as the ratio of reflected to incoming shortwave radiation. A surface with an albedo of e.g. 0.
An organism’s short- or long-term adaptation to changing climatic conditions (a changing climate). Acclimatisation can take place in response to changed temperatures, less available oxygen, high atmos
Solid or liquid particles in the air, with a typical size of between 0.01 and 10 μm, which remain in the atmosphere for at least a few hours. Aerosols, which can be naturally occurring or anthropogeni
In oceanography and meteorology, the term “advection” refers to the (primarily) horizontal transport of properties (mass, heat, trace gases, ...) via currents in the water or air (opposite: convection
The term “absorption” generally refers to the absorption of light. When light strikes a surface, the extent to which it is absorbed depends on the material, colour and frequency. When light penetrates
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment .
Ablation refers to all processes that produce ice loss in glaciers. These include melting, calving, evaporation, breakup and sublimation. A glacier’s total annual decrease in volume is referred to as
The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (Murmansk, Siberia, Nenets Okrug, Novaya Zemlya), Sweden and the Unit
This year, sea-ice development in the Antarctic is progressing extremely slowly and, after May, once again reached a record-low monthly sea-ice extent in June. At 11.23 million km², the monthly mean s